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artchipel:

Juliana Manara (b.1983, Brazil/UK) - MiniB

"MiniB was my imagination and now I am being able to make it visible through a playful, humorous photograph work. With fantasy it simulates some observations of human life. Each work brings ideas of feelings, facts or attitudes. It introduces multiple meanings with the universality of landscapes, sometimes surreal environments and always a good relationship between human and other animals or the needy relation between humans and material things. MiniB invites us to dialogue about our existence and also can claim to some absurdities of the human conditions. Sometimes it simulates a lost mind, sometimes the challenges or obligations or a very peaceful moment" Juliana Manara explores human experiences simulating the facts with fantasies. Her experimental photographic work is part of a growing up private and public international collection.

[more Juliana Manara | artist found at leslieseuffert]

farewell-kingdom:

Yves Marchand & Romain Meffre - The Ruins of Detroit

Detroit will always hold a special place in my heart.

James Turrell at the Guggenheim.

Networking- Linked in

Please, feel free to add me.

cv September 2011

EDUCATION
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B.A. Art History (Magna Cum Laude) 2010 Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe, AZ
Areas of Interest: Photography, Modern, Contemporary Mexican, and New Media
B.A. Museum Studies (Magna Cum Laude) 2010 Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe, AZ
Areas of Interest: Public art, Art collection management, and Arts administration

A.A.S. Photographic Technology (Magna Cum Laude) 2006 Oakland Community College Royal Oak, MI

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
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Arizona State University Art Museum Volunteer Tempe, AZ July 2010- October 2010
• Researched photographs donated by the Andy Warhol Foundation of Visual Arts to find the connection of the subject and the artist and wrote the introduction panel used in the exhibition Andy Warhol: Who, What, Where, Mar 5- Aug 6, 2011
Phoenix Office of Arts and Culture Intern Phoenix, AZ July 2010- October 2010
• Worked with the public art department to showcase outstanding contributions to the city by designing an exhibition and writing accompanying text panels for later use
ASU Art Museum Intern Tempe, AZ January 2010- May 2010
• Conducted extensive research including internet databases, news paper archives, books, and museum records to write artist biographies and accompanying text panels for the exhibition From the Headlines, Mar 27- Jun 26, 2010
ASU Anthropology Museum Intern Tempe, AZ August 2009- December 2009
• Organized the Marigold Festival on the ASU campus November 2, 2009 and implemented an education program at Pastor Elementary in conjunction with the exhibition Que Vivan Los Muertos„ Oct 12, 2009- Jan 8, 2010
• Conducted several guided tours for the visiting schools while attending to the Museum
Tempe Historical Museum Restoration Member Tempe, AZ June 9- 26, 2009
• Under the supervision of a professional conservator, I assisted with cleaning the permanent collection that was damaged by dust during remolding.
ASU Step and Harry Wood Galleries Gallery Attendant Tempe, AZ Sept 2008- Dec 2008
• Supervised the Step gallery once a week and managed public inquires about art or artists
• worked with a team to coordinate and install the changing exhibitions
• Co-curated the exhibitions: Juried Undergraduate Exhibition, Dec 2008, and New Grads Exhibition, Oct 2008 at the ASU Harry Wood Gallery
Phoenix Art Museum Volunteer Phoenix, AZ January 2008- December 2009
• Greeter to the public during special exhibitions and events

RELATED EXPERIENCE
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Antonucci Café, Assistant to the Owner New York, NY October 2010-August 2011
• Acted as a liaison between the accountant and vendors
• Organized and coordinated private events, both in the restaurant and offsite
• Overseen daily opening tasks and provided necessary clerical work
• Managed the client records and the owners personal Contacts and schedule
Reference: Francesco Antonucci (Owner)

SKILLS
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• Well versed in MS Word, Works, Excel, Power Point, Adobe Photoshop CS2 and familiar with illustrator
• Years of experience creating professional slides, wall labels, mounting and matting art work and art installation

COMMUNITY OUTREACH
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• Participant: Xico, Inc. 30th annual El Día de los Muertos celebration: Chandler, AZ: Nov 7, 2009
• Cook and organizer: Food Not Bombs: Met weekly to distribute food to the homeless and organized a fundraiser, which featured local art work, live music and food: Phoenix, AZ: Sept 2006- Aug 2007
• Organizer: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial March Coat Drive for the homeless: Detroit, MI: Jan 2006

Woman Clothed With the Sun Escaping from the Dragon,
A contribution to Spanish Manuscript Tradition.
By Diana Ledesma

More to come!

Woman Clothed With the Sun Escaping from the Dragon,

A contribution to Spanish Manuscript Tradition.

By Diana Ledesma

More to come!

Margaret Kilgallen (1967-2001) AKA Meta AKA Matokie Slaughter

Our understanding is not an illusion: it is ambiguous. This ambiguity is present in all our views of works from other civilizations and even when we contemplate works from our own past. We are not Greeks, Chinese, or Arabs; yet neither can we say we fully comprehend Romanesque or Byzantine sculpture. We are condemned to translate, and each of these translations, whether it be of Gothic or Egyptian art, is a metaphor, a transmutation of the original.

Octavio Paz

From Essays on Mexican Art, 1993, pg 35

About me

I discovered art in High school. Although I had always enjoyed school, art and the classroom became a refuge at Kettering. My senior year consisted of mostly electives, which I embraced. I dabbled in ceramics, glass, figure drawing, and portfolio, but longed to take photography classes.

After graduation I enrolled at Oakland Community College and was inspired and encouraged by the photo program designed by Nick Valenti and Rob Kangas. After a year and a half, I thought about transfering to an art college in an historic district in St. Paul, MN, but backed out last minute… something just did not feel right. Instead, I decided to finish the Associate program at OCC and move to Phoenix, AZ with my mom and brother. I applied to Arizona State University’s Anthropology program, but transferred to the school of art before registration.

Valenti introduced me to Art History with the required History of Photography course. He compiled a thorough survey and included numerous work by lesser know photographers. One evening, he concluded our session with a slide show of postcards made at lynching sites accompineied by Billie Holiday’s Strange Fruit. There was something about Lady Day’s sad soulful lyrics contrasting the images of thick crowds of people, playfully posing in front of striking scenes of inhumanity… my world has never been the same.

I am interested in criticism, public art, curating, teaching and research. In September I am relocating to New York City to figure out my path. I am not opposed to going to graduate school, I just want to decide what to focus on. I feel excited for the possibilities. 

This blog is intended to showcase some of my writing, so you may learn my interests and observe my abilities. Feel free to ask anything. 

FROM THE HEADLINES: Selections From the Print Collection (March 27- June 26, 2010)

[As part of my academic internship spring 2010 at Arizona State University Art Museum, I created the artist’s biographies and text panels for the small exhibition.]

Enrique Chagoya’s art reflects his experiences in his homeland, Mexico, and his adopted home, the United States. He immigrated to the U.S. in the 1970s and feels that because he has lived in both countries, it has given him an interpretive advantage on the U.S.- Mexico relationship. The artist works in a variety of mediums including, paint, charcoal, pastel, etching and montage. His color palates are either gray scale or the combination of white, black and red which refer back to pre-Columbian books, anarchy, communism and Russian propaganda posters. He incorporates familiar pop icons to discuss complex issues such as colonialism, oppression and American foreign policy. The juxtapositions of themes and mediums create meanings of their own. The artists stated in 1994, “when two things get mixed, a third reality appears. This is part of my own history, new things are constantly being shaped in life, old borders are being crossed.”
Chagoya graduated from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México where he studied political economy and continued his education in America at the San Francisco Art Institute and University of California Berkley. He is currently a professor of Art at Stanford University.

Enrique Chagoya (b. 1953)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico; lives and works in San Francisco, CA)
Grande Hazañ! Con Muertos! from the Disasters of War Series, 1983-2003
Intaglio, 6 5/8 x 8 1/4”
Gift of Friends of Mexican Art 2003.048.001

Grande Hazañ! Con Muertos! from the Disasters of War Series, is part of a series that pays homage to Goya by reinventing some of the master’s well known prints. This work began in 1983 when Chagoya first encountered and was affected by a Goya print. The title translates to Great Deeds! Against the dead! and is a close copy of Goya’s print from his Disasters of War series, only Chagoya added a popular American icon, Mickey Mouse. Mickey is standing in the bottom left corner with his left arm raised as if presenting the gruesome scene. Chagoya believes that he does not document or witness social and political events in his work as Goya did, but instead only reflects that the same issues continue. From the artist, “The concept of this work is based on the question: How would Goya have portrayed events in the 20th century if he had witnessed it, if he had traveled in time? My etchings are my own version of the answer, without the pretension to compete with the old master.” He stated in a 2007 interview that Goya seems to be “someone who’s very frustrated with his times, maybe someone who’s very angry with his society” and wishes he had the chance to meet him.

Sue Coe is an English painter, draughtsman, etcher and author. She studied in London at the Chelsea School of Art and the Royal College of Art. Coe moved to New York after graduation to teach at the School of Visual Arts until 1978 and illustrate for publications such as The New York Times. She is an important social and political artist, creating visual commentaries on current events and persons in power; on the inhumane treatment of animals in factory farms, slaughterhouses, and laboratories; and on the victims of AIDS, Apartheid and war. She does this in a media that allows distribution to the widest audience: prints. Much like the historic artists Goya and Daumier, printmaking has become for her a method of artistic expression for social change. Although some critics have stated that her politics overshadow her art, Coe has always considered herself more of a journalist. She has written and illustrated a number of books including How to Commit Suicide in South Africa, 1983; X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X), 1986; Dead Meat, 1996; and Pit’s Letter, 2000. Coe’s paintings, drawings and prints are included in many public collections. An archive of her prints is at the ASU Art Museum, Jules Heller Print Study Room.

Sue Coe (b. 1951)
(Born in Tamworth, Staffordshire, England; lives and works in the United States)
9-11, 2002
Ink jet print, 15 5/8 x 21 1/4”
Gift of the artist 2003.005.001


Sue Coe (b. 1951)
(Born in Tamworth, Staffordshire, England; lives and works in the United States)
Anita Hill, 1991
Intaglio, copper plate etching, B/W, on Rives Paper, 15 1/4 x 9 3/4”
President’s fund for art purchases 1992.208.001

Anita Hill was made famous in the trial of Clarence Thomas, President George H. W. Bush’s nominee for the United States Supreme Court when Thurgood Marshall retired. Mashall was known for his tremendous strides with the civil rights movement and Thomas was far more conservative. Women’s groups and civil rights organizations openly voiced their opposition to his nomination. The Senate committee reached a stalemate vote and the final decision was taken to the Senate floor. Here, Anita Hill came forward as a former colleague of Thomas and stated that he had sexually harassed her when she refused to date him. The vigorous questioning of Anita Hill turned into a “witch hunt” and, as Coe implies in the print, ruining her credibility in the process. The hearings became a media frenzy and a bloody battle of her word against his. In the end the Senate voted in favor of his nomination 52-48.
Although Hill’s claims did not impact the Thomas nomination, it had an incredible effect in other areas. Sexual harassment cases more than doubled and awards to victims almost quadrupled. 1992 was known as the “Year of the Woman” because a record number of women ran for public office and won.

Robbie Conal grew up in New York City surrounded by art. He relocated to California where he studied at San Francisco State University and later Stanford University. After graduation he focused his efforts on topics of politics, power and the abuses of both, but realized that his message would be severely censored in established art institutions. What resulted was what he calls “guerilla-postering”. Conal made his paintings, critical and unflattering caricatures of public figures, into posters and hung them around the city with the aid of volunteers using glue and staples on virtually no budget. He calls the posters “adversary portraiture”. In 1983 Conal organized a group of students and colleagues at the University of Connecticut known as Art Attack. The collective made shirts, posters and postcards criticizing military foreign policy. The collective demanded social and political change. Today the artist lives in Los Angeles and continues to post his message on the streets.

Robbie Conal (b. 1944)
(Born in New York City, New York; lives and works in Los Angeles, CA)
Read My Apocalips, 2004
Off-set lithograph, 35 x 24”
Gift of Theodore Joseph Decker and Elizabeth Carrie Decker 2004.059.001

Read My Apocalips was created in conjunction with artists Shepard Fairey and Mear One for a series of “anti-war, anti-Bush” posters for a street art campaign called “Be the Revolution”. The images all featured a satirical depiction of George W. Bush with accompanying ironic text expressing the artist’s concerns about America’s role in the new world order. Thousands of the posters were printed for distribution by the art collective, Post Gen, who went on a tour of major cities in an effort to take back the freedom of expression in a Patriot-act era.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier was a painter, sculptor, illustrator and engraver. His career began when he joined his father, a glazier, frame-maker, picture restorer and poet, in Paris in 1816. There he studied drawing with Alexandre Lenoir and at the Académie Suisse and later became the assistant to the lithographer Béliard. His first plate was published in the satirical weekly La Silhouette in 1829.
The revolution of July 1830 gave the throne to Louis-Philippe as constitutional monarch and the French middle-class business community was in power. Published by Aubert and Charles Philipon, the first newspapers illustrated with lithographs on a daily basis were the anti-monarchist weekly paper La Caricature (from November 1830) and Le Charivari (from December 1832). In his work with these newspapers, Daumier quickly developed his style and progressive ideas. His attacks on the monarch led to the reintroduction of censorship laws and eventually lead to Daumier receiving a six month stay in prison from August 31, 1832 to February 14, 1833. In late 1835, the government imposed harsher censorship laws and Le Charivari was forced to restrict itself and Daumier’s work to images of social life. He returned to political satire in 1848 and started painting. In 1878, Daumier had his first successful painting exhibition, but by that time he was almost completely blind. He died a year later.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808-1879)
(Born in Marseille, France; died in Valmondois, France)
Embrassons nous
Lithograph, 9 5/8 x 8 1/8”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1980.036.001

Embrassons nous translates in English to “we embrace” and was published in the La Charivari October 24, 1867. Beginning in 1864, Daumier started a long series to warn the French people of war. He always represented Prussia with their typical spiked helmet. The woman in the print represents Peace.
The Franco-Prussian war officially began in July 1870 and ended the following year in February. Even though it was short in duration it had a large impact on Europe. France had more than half of its military forces deployed around the world, including Mexico, Indochina, Algeria and Rome, leaving it vulnerable. The end result of the war was the defeat of Napoléon III.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808-1879)
(Born in Marseille, France; died in Valmondois, France)
Je voulais la lui jeter et c’est moi qui me suis Sali
Lithograph, 2nd state, 9 1/2 x 8 1/4”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1980.040.001

On the right, the podium reads “Voltaire” the penname of the famous French philosopher and author who lived between 1694 and 1778. His ideas on free trade and religious intolerance and persecution influenced the French and American Revolutions. Voltaire was forced into exile several times for insulting important Frenchmen, but always returned back to his home land. At first, he was denied burial in church ground upon his death because of his beliefs, but was buried at an abbey in Champagne.

The title Je voulais la lui jeter et c’est moi qui me suis Sali roughly translates to “I wanted to throw it at him, and I’m the one who got soiled” was printed in Le Charivari in September 22, 1869. The metaphor refers to the Jesuit priests who tried to halt the memorial statue of Voltaire, but in turn made themselves look bad. The Jesuit he depicted in this print appears in about 19 other satires and is known as Basile the Jesuit, a symbol of perversity and hypocrisy. In a print from 1867 he shows the same Jesuit protesting the statue made in Voltaire’s honor by crying out, “I don’t want him to have a statue when I don’t have mine!” portraying him and other Jesuits as petty and arrogant.

Francisco José Goya y Lucientes was born in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 1746 to a small landowner. Though he had little formal education, at fourteen he painted frescoes in the Church of Fuendetodos and a year later began regular art studies. At age twenty, he left for Italy where he won a prize at Parma for Hannibal seeing Italy from the Alps, and produced a full-length portrait of Pope Benedict XIV, now in the Vatican. On Goya’s return to Spain (1775), he was introduced to the royal court where he was an active artist for about six decades. He worked most of his life as the official court painter to three generations of Spanish Royalty. In 1792 due to a prolonged fever and an extended period of illness in Cádiz in Andalusia, he became deaf. He returned to Madrid in 1793 and continued to paint. But Goya was also one of the most important printmakers of the 18th through early 19th centuries. By 1799 Goya had completed his first great print series, Los Caprichos. He worked on the Disaster of War series from 1810 to 1820, though it was not printed until after his death. In 1826 Goya retired, retaining his full salary due to his long service and advanced age, and lived out the rest of his days in Bordeaux, France.

Francisco José Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828)
(Born in Fuendetodos, Spain; died in Bordeaux, France)
Que Hai que hacer mas? (What more can one do?), 1810-1820 (edition 1868)
Intaglio, etching, drypoint, burin, and burnisher on paper, 6 1/8 x 8”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1983.019.001

Goya was 64 when he began the Disasters of War series in 1810, which included 83 prints. The scenes depicted in this series were from the Peninsular War of 1808-1814. France dominated the majority of continental Europe. In 1808 Napoleon deposed the existing Spanish monarch and placed his own brother Joseph on the throne. Spanish revolts and war followed. Britain sent troops to support the Spanish uprising, while the rebels utilized guerrilla tactics to attack the French and drive them out of Spain. It was the images of the atrocities from war, as seen in this print, that inspired this series. Goya refused to print the Disasters of War series partly because of the failure of his previous large project, Los Caprichos, and the strong message against war. The series was not printed until 1863 by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando where Goya was once a director. Today, the Disaster of War and the Los Caprichos series are his most well-known work. By depicting the violence and misery of the Peninsular War, he inspired future artists to depict and protest the indiscriminate “disasters of war” instead of glorifying the victories.

Jon Haddock received his BFA in drawing from Arizona State University in 1986 and went on to obtain his MFA in painting from the University of Iowa in 1991. Haddock works in a variety of mediums including digital, clay, drawing, painting and collage to explore iconography, history, violence, desire and attitudes of human sexuality.

Jon Haddock (b. 1960)
(Born in Sacramento, CA; lives and works in Tempe, AZ)
Lorraine Motel, 2000
Digital C. Print, 16 x 20”
Museum purchase with partial donation from Howard House Gallery, Seattle, WA 2000.049.001

Lorraine Motel was made in 2000 as part of the Screenshots collection. He created 20 prints total, all 600x800 pixels, recalling important historical events or well known fictional scenes and drawn using isometric perspective, commonly seen in video games. The perspective allows figures to retain their scale despite the distance from the viewer, unlike true perspective where they are smaller the further away they are. Lorraine motel, located in Memphis, Tennessee, was well known for being affordable and safe and had both white and black guests. Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. all stayed there during the late 1960s. Although Haddock was only seven at the time, he chose to document the shocking assignation that took place there on April 4, 1968, making the motel a symbol of the civil rights movement.

Most commonly known for his “Modern Moral Subjects,” William Hogarth was much more than a satirist, he was also a great painter, drawer, writer, and engraver. He was born in London, England, on November 10, 1697. Hogarth grew up poor; his father was arrested for debt and his family moved into debtor’s lodgings near his prison. He did not have the best schooling, but he did love to draw, filling his assignments with designs. At 16, Hogarth became an apprentice to a silversmith engraver. He began an eight-year apprenticeship, but left after six years. He opened his own engraving shop out of the family home in 1720 at the age of 23. There he did everything from book illustrations to his own satiric prints before he decided to start painting. Hogarth enrolled at artist James Thornhill’s school in Covent Garden and started to produce conversation pieces and portraits for commission for wealthy patrons. But he knew there was a larger market in the middle class for his prints. He engraved his first satiric series after his paintings in 1731 and the series was copied without his approval by other artists and publishers. Backed by the support of his fellow engravers, he worked to have a law passed to protect the copyrights of engravers in 1735. The Copyright Act became synonymous with Hogarth and is more commonly known as the Hogarth Act. He continued to design more engravings that satirized high and low society. He served as Sergeant Painter to the King George II and was involved with the Society of Artists. On October 25, 1764 at the age of 67 he died of a ruptured artery in his home in London.

William Hogarth (1697-1764)
(Born, lived and died in London, England)
Canvassing for Votes, Plate II, 1757
Inscribed: To His Excellency Sir Charles Hanbury Williams Embassador to the Court of Russia. This Plate is humbly Inscrib’d by his most Obedient Humble Servant Wm Hogarth. Published February 20th 1757 as the Act directs. G. Grignion (engraver) and Painted by W. Hogarth.
Engraving, 17 1/8 x 21 7/8”
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. M.F. Dorfman 1977.032.008b

Hogarth produced several print series, each a social/moral visual play that tells a story. Canvassing for Votes is part of a set of four prints loosely based on the Oxfordshire Election. The scene in Plate II depicts Britain’s historical parties, Whig and Tory, working to find votes. The Royal Oak Inn on the right was the headquarters of the Tory party and is decorated with satirical signs that show the opponent purchasing votes using coins from his wheelbarrow. This suggests that the Whigs use taxpayer’s money to fund election treats and bribes. The Tory candidate, standing under the sign, is buying goods from the peddlers and young girls hang from the balcony in admiration. A woman by the door, the landlady of the Inn, is counting her share while a solider spies on her from the shadows. The center of the scene shows a group of men and, in the middle, an innkeeper is accepting bribes from men of both parties at the same time. In the background Hograth shows the Whig headquarters being attacked by a mob of Tory supporters. The prints in this series were started after the General Election and the results were widely publicized. He was more concerned about showing the political and aristocratic methods of intimidation, buying votes and taking advantage of the people rather than the outcome of the election.

Winslow Homer was an illustrator, etcher and painter, most famous for his landscapes and watercolors. He showed an interest in art early on and was encouraged by both parents. He taught himself illustration and at 19 became the apprentice at a lithographic firm in Boston where he learned to be a draughtsman.
Homer moved to New York in 1859 and quickly became an illustrator at Harper’s Weekly and several other publications. He attended night school at the National Academy of Design, drawing classes in Brooklyn, and was taught oil painting by Frédéric Rondel. He became a war correspondent during the Civil War, traveling south with the Union and illustrating their daily life. His painting Prisoners from the Front (1866) achieved international success at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867.

Homer took up watercolor in 1873 and became a member of the American Society of Painters in Watercolor in 1877. Towards the end of his career he moved to a house on the coast of Maine and focused on the sea and wilderness as the subject of his work. In the 1880s he began to teach himself etching and made several prints of his paintings. By the time of his death in 1910, he had more art work in public collections than any other living artist and had received numerous awards and honors.

Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
(Born in Boston, MA; died in Prout’s Neck, ME)
The Army of the Potomac- A Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, 1862
Wood engraving, 9 1/8 x 3 1/4”
Purchased with funds provided by the American Art Heritage Fund 1975.041.001

This image of The Army of the Potomac- A Sharpshooter on Picket Duty is the most collected and hard to find of Homer’s civil war prints. It was printed in the November 15, 1862 issue of Harper’s Weekly. Although the image helped to make him famous, he found the position of the sharpshooter disturbing. Homer was an artist for the Union and stated in a letter to a friend that the job of a sharpshooter struck him as being as close to “murder” as anything else in connection to the army. He may have felt that way because of the distance the shooter (sniper) could keep from his victim. The sniper was armed with new customized rifles (such as the Whitworth, Berdan Sharps and Morgan rifles) with telescopes that allowed them to see their targets from a greater distance and modified barrels that expanded the range of the rifle to hit their distant marks.

Leopoldo Mendez was a Mexican painter, printmaker, illustrator and draughtsman. He studied at the Academia de San Carlos from 1917–1919 and at the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre de Chimalistac from 1920– 1922 in Mexico City, Mexico. During the 1920s he was associated with a collective of Mexican writers and artists called Estridentismo and worked as an illustrator for various magazines. An exhibition of his work was held in the United States in 1930 which lead to several exhibitions abroad. In 1939 he received a grant from the Guggenheim Foundation in New York. In the 1930s he founded the collective Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios and when it closed in 1937, began the Taller de Gráfica Popular collective to which he was the director until 1952. His social realist style prints reflect social struggle and the beliefs of the Mexican Communist Party. His prints were featured in numerous movies during the “golden age” of Mexican cinema and he produced murals and other large scale work in Mexico.

Leopoldo Mendez (1902-1969)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico, 1902; died in Mexico City, Mexico)
Juarez, 1938,
Woodengraving, 5 1/4 x 7 1/4”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1993.079.017

This image is in honor of Benito Juárez, the president of Mexico from 1858 to 1872. He spent much of his career defending the civil rights of native people and limiting the Church’s power. However, his political life was turbulent, as was the struggle for control of Mexico. He remains a favorite president of the Mexican people, much like our respect for President Abraham Lincoln who governed our country through turbulent times and civil unrest.

In 1938 the artist of this print, Leopoldo Mendez, received a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship and used the money to explore the United States, sketching the lives of the American industrial worker. He was surprised, however, by the discrimination he experience. For example, in New Orleans he was excited to view the American film Juárez about the Mexican President, but was unable to because it was shown in a white only theater.

Leopoldo Mendez (1902-1969)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico, 1902; died in Mexico City, Mexico)
El Fascismo II (Facism II), 1936
Woodengraving, 5 3/8 x 6 5/8”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1993.079.019

Méndez founded LEAR (Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucinarios or the League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) in 1934 in which he and other artists used art to convey their views that openly oppose Fascism and Nazism and instead support socialism.

A progressive Popular Front government was elected by the people in 1936 and alarmed the conservatives of Spain. Before, the Catholic Church had a lot of pull within the country and was not concerned with the large population of poor
within the borders. They controlled secondary education, did not educate women or see a need for it, universal literacy was not a concern and divorce was illegal. Fed up with the circumstances, the people broke into the barracks and armed themselves to fight their way to Barcelona and Madrid. The conservatives sought help in the Fascist governments of Italy, Germany, and Portugal, making the civil dispute an international fight between fascism and democracy. This image is symbolic of this struggle with disarmed workers shot and held at gunpoint by the Nazis.

Thomas Nast was an illustrator whose family immigrated to America from Germany when he was six. He was taught by the history painter Theodore Kaufmann and studied at the National Academy of Design. He began to work as a political cartoonist for the publication Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Magazine at the age of 15, but it was in 1862 when he took a position at Harper’s Weekly that his style developed. His work largely dealt with the Civil War and favored the North; in fact, Abraham Lincoln called the artist “the Union’s best recruiting sergeant.” He worked as a war correspondent and visited battle grounds, sending back drawings of the scene.

After 1865, he based his caricatures on photographs and included character traits and personal weaknesses in the expressions of his subjects. Satirical captions finished the drawings. He earned the nickname “president maker” because six presidents he supported in Harper’s were elected. He soon became a popular, nationally-known name, and his political cartoons on current events became a timeline of American history. Nast is credited with creating: the political symbols of the elephant and donkey, shaping the image of Santa Claus and Uncle Sam, and aiding in the arrest of “Boss” William Tweed, the head of a corrupt group of Tammany Hall politicians who stole over $200 million dollars from the city of New York.

After Nast left Harper’s, he published a book of drawings in 1890 and was appointed American Consul to Guayaquil, Ecuador, by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. He died shortly after of yellow fever.

Thomas Nast (1840-1902)
(Born in Landau, Bavaria, 1840; died in Guayaquil, Ecuador)
Too Thin, 1871
Woodengraving, 11x 9 1/4”
Gift of Dr. Betsy Fahlman 1994.155.002

This image (Too Thin) appeared on the cover of Harper’s Weekly on September 30, 1871. Nast depicts “Boss Tweed” otherwise known as William Meager Tweed, a corrupt New York City Tammany Hall politician, and his associates, the “Tweed Ring.” Tweed came into power in 1863 and stayed there by buying his supporters with jobs or government contracts. They, in turn, would raise their contract prices higher than actual costs so that Tweed and friends could pocket the difference. Nast’s sarcastic print shows the “Tweed Ring” to be “Too Thin” when in fact they were fat with padded contracts, bribes and public funds.

Tweed’s undoing started when vouchers and papers were stolen from the controller’s office of City Treasury in late 1871. The janitor of the Court House, Edwin Haggerty, along with his assistant and his wife were arrested in connection with the theft. Nast produced many cartoons attacking Tweed, but it
was members of his ring that eventually turned on him and provided evidence that led to his and his associates arrests. The resulting trial brought to light their many criminal activities. He resigned from office in 1871 and was convicted in 1873 and eventually died in prison in 1878.

Thomas Nast (1840-1902)
(Born in Landau, Bavaria, 1840; died in Guayaquil, Ecuador)
They Both Lie Together in the Washington Arena, 1876
Woodengraving, 9 x 13 1/2”
Gift of Dr. Betsy Fahlman 1994.055.005

The Society of Tammany (a patriotic society started in 1789) and the Democratic Party blended into a political machine, Tammany Hall, which controlled New York politics from about 1855 to the 1930s. Nast originally created the tiger to represent the “Tweed Ring” and Tammany Hall: it was called the Tammany Tiger. But it also represented the Democratic Party which was controlled by Tammany Hall. Nast used the lamb, eagle and finally the elephant to represent the Republican party.

The tiger’s quote “I have reformed, and am tame now” implies the impact the arrest and imprisonment of Tweed and his associates had on the Tammany Hall power system. But as the image depicts, the tiger is still very aggressive compared to the timid Republican lamb. The conflict between the two is based on two other events in 1876. That was the year of the first Centennial Celebration in Philadelphia to honor the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, but as shown in his cartoon, the political parties were not exactly friendly for two reasons. First, the Democratic Party supported a bill that designated a million and a half dollars for the Centennial Fund, but was not supported by all. Second, in January the house met to discuss the amnesty bill, an official pardon for offences against the government by Jefferson Davies, the chosen President of the Confederacy, and others involved. The amnesty bill fell short of the two-thirds vote necessary and the discussion of peace and forgiveness turned hostile.

Mike Ritter was born to a political family and once considered himself a conservative, but now finds the label outdated. Through his cartoons he satirizes anyone or topic he disagrees with, regardless of political affiliation. He moved to Arizona in the 1980s to attend Arizona State University and has since made it his home. His biggest influences growing up were Dr. Suess and Al Hirschfeld. Ritter’s work is featured in the Arizona Tribune and he is the President of the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists.

Mike Ritter
(Born in Ritzville, Washington; lives and works in Phoenix, AZ)
The Clintons, 2004
Ink on paper, 9 x 12”
Gift of Mike Ritter 2004.136.001

The Democratic National Convention was held at the Fleet Center (now the TD Banknorth Garden) in Boston, Massachusetts on July 26 to July 29, 2004. John Kerry and John Edwards were nominated as the official candidates of the Democratic Party for President and Vice President of the United States for the upcoming Presidential Elections. The keynote speaker for the evening was then United States senator of Illinois, Barak Obama. The convention also included a speech by former President Bill Clinton, introduced by his wife Hillary Clinton (now the current United States Secretary of State) to a roaring crowd and standing ovation, perhaps overshadowing – as Ritter illustrates – the men of the hour, Kerry and Edwards.

Mike Ritter
(Born in Ritzville, Washington; lives and works in Phoenix, AZ)
The Missing Link, 2004
Ink on paper, 9 x 12”
Gift of Mike Ritter 2004.136.004

In part because of the Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) attack on New York on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush ordered troops to invade Iraq. On Wednesday, June 23, 2004, two and half years after the 9/11 attack, Bush was told by the 9/11 Commission that there was no evidence linking Iraq to the terrorist group that claimed responsibility for the attack. Media outlets ran the story immediately. White House staffers called on CIA officials for their assessment of Saddam Hussein’s relationship with Al-Qaeda and, according to a senior White House official, CIA officials told Bush aides they still believed there were links. President Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice all had supported the CIA theory nationally. However, a schism occurred in Congress after the Commission’s report. John Kerry and others attacked Bush for leading the United States to war on false pretenses. Bush stated, “you can’t distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam in the war on terror,” in a 2002 letter to Congress that cited Iraqi involvement in 9/11 as one of the reasons for war. But Bush later denied that the administration ever said a link existed. In this cartoon, Ritter is illustrating this “missing link.”

For Paul Szep, being a cartoonist was a second choice. Born in Canada, his dream was to play for the National Hockey League, but his time with a semi-professional team did not work out. Now he is an award winning cartoonist. His achievements include two Pulitzer Prizes, the International Thomas Nast Award, and three Honorary Doctorates.

He started at his high school newspaper creating sports cartoons, which quickly evolved into political satire. He specialized in Illustration at the Ontario College of Art and shortly after graduation, Szep landed a job at the Boston Globe. Boston “radicalized” him, for he grew up in a conservative, apolitical town. He believes that humor is integral to political commentary and finding what to comment on is the hardest part of the job. The cartoonist was sued for libel for his satires of the Governor of Massachusetts, Edward King, in which he replied: “My goodness, a political cartoonist holding up a politician for ridicule. That’s not libel, that’s a job description.” He currently works for the Huffington Post and publishes a daily cartoon.

Paul Szep (b. 1941)
(Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; lives and works in the United States)
National Security Blanket
Lithograph, 14 7/8 x 18”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1988.169.001

This image satirizes former President Nixon taking comfort behind the “National Security Blanket” during his Watergate days. In 1968, Richard Nixon was elected the 37 th president of the United States. He was reelected in 1972 by a landslide, ironically just after news broke about the summer burglary of the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Hotel. Five Whitehouse staff members were seen the night of June 17, 1972 by security guard Frank Wills, who alerted authorities. Nixon was in Florida at the time and denied knowing anything about the break in when the news appeared in TV and newspapers.

An informant working for the FBI, who became known as Deep Throat, helped reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post uncover the interworking of the scandal which led to investigations by the appointed Senate Watergate Committee.

Nixon continually denied his involvement in the scandal. Then White House aide Alexander Butterfield reported that Nixon had secretly recorded his phone calls and conversations in the Oval Office on tape. Subpoenas were issued requesting the tapes, but Nixon refused, citing “executive privilege,” the doctrine that the president, as chief executive, is entitled to candid and confidential advice from aides and that it was a matter of national security. Nixon’s lawyers revealed
parts of the tapes had been erased. Eventually in April 1974, transcripts of some tapes were released, the content of which further diminished Nixon’s credibility and his support. In July 1974 the Supreme Court ordered Nixon to give-up the tapes and issued one article of impeachment. Nixon finally released the tapes, which included one from June 23, 1972 that revealed the president’s connection to the break-ins and cover-up. The house began proceedings for impeachment, but Nixon resigned from office on national television August 8, 1974. President Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon for any criminal activities. Nixon died April 22, 1994 at the age of 81.

Francesc Torres is a printmaker and mixed-media artist working with video, photography and sculpture. He emigrated from Spain in the 1970s and became a United States citizen in 1989. The majority of his work revolves around the memory of war, power, forgotten human casualties and historical events.

Torres has been recognized by several institutions and received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, The New York Foundation for the Arts, the Massachusetts Council for the Art and Humanities, the Spanish Ministry of Culture, the D.A.A.D. Berlin artists program and a Fulbright fellowship. His work has been exhibited in several prestigious museums and institutions including the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gardens, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid; Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, Mexico; and The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

At the time of the Persian Gulf Crisis, Torres was living in the United States and noticed a collective amnesia. Torres paraphrased Jean Baudrillard, the French sociologist, philosopher and political commentator, that the Gulf War was not going to happen while they were preparing, was not taking place while it was occurring, and had not taken place after it was over.

Francesc Torres (b. 1948)
(Born in Barcelona, Spain; lives and works out of Barcelona and New York)
Untitled (Forget me Not), 1991
Phototransfer, intaglio, 11 3/4 x 8 3/4”
Gift of the artist 1997.036.001

Torres created the Forget Everything series I-VI in 1991 when the Gulf War was ending. The war that did not happen took place between Iraq and Kuwait. At one point Kuwait was an ally and funding source for Iraq, but when Iraq was unable to repay its debt the relationship changed. Iraq invaded in August, 1990, and the United States was asked for help by the Saudi King Fahd. President George H. W. Bush was sure that the invasion “will not stand”; however, by October he made the secret decision to double the troops in Saudi Arabia. In November the United Nations pushes for Iraqi withdrawal and set a deadline for January, which was not met. Hundreds of civilians were killed in the attacks by the time that Bush declared a cease-fire February 28, 1991. In June the United States celebrated the victory of expelling Iraq from the state of Kuwait, but as Torres points out, “officially, there is no victorious fighter without dead enemies.”

Betty Wells, also known as “quick draw Wells,” does not remember a time when she wasn’t drawing or sketching. Growing up through the depression was difficult and she was forced to use brown bags as drawing paper. However, her self-taught skills, fostered by her aunt, paid off when she received a four year Merit Scholarship to the Maryland Institute College of Art. She won the Henry Walters post-graduate award and continued her studies for another year, but stopped in 1949 to start a family.

Wells received her first chance as a courtroom artist from Neal Friedman, a reporter from WBAL, Baltimore’s NBC affiliate station. Artists were used to illustrate court events when photography and film/video cameras were not permitted in the courtroom. Friedman asked Wells if she would like to sketch the H. Rap Brown Tribunal, the trial of a Black Panthers member. Wells continued working with NBC for many years, covering Watergate, the John Hinkley trial and many others.

Betty Wells (b. 1926)
(Born in Baltimore, Maryland; lives and works in Virginia)
John Hinkley, 1982
Color markers, pen, and ink on paper, 14 x 16 1/2”
Gift of Betty Wells 2004.132.003

John F. Hinckley, Jr. fired a Rohm RG-14 revolver six times in an attempt to assassinate President Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1982. In his defense, he blamed the 1976 Robert De Niro movie Taxi Driver in which the main character, Travis Bickle, assassinates a political figure in an attempt to gain the admiration of woman. The movie featured the young Jodie Foster, whom Hinckley was obsessed with after repeatedly watching the movie, reading the original book, and listening to the soundtrack. Dr. William Carpenter, Jr. a defense expert claimed that Hinckley unconsciously “absorbed the identity of Travis Bickle.” The verdict “not guilty” for reasons of insanity caused a stir. Many Americans blamed the jury as being “anti-Reagan,” but others accused the legal system, claiming that it was too easy for people to claim insanity. Public pressure surrounding the case led to many states enacting major reforms to the laws governing the use of the insanity defense.

Betty Wells (b. 1926)
(Born in Baltimore, Maryland; lives and works in Virginia)
Susan Smith, 1995
Color markers, pen, and ink on paper, 14 x 16 1/2”
Gift of Betty Wells 2004.132.004

Shown here crying during testimony, Susan Vaughan Smith was convicted on July 22, 1995, and sentenced to life in prison for murdering her two sons, Michael Daniel Smith, 3, and 14-month-old Alexander Tyler Smith. She had a difficult life from early youth when her parents divorced, her father comitted suicide, her stepfather molested her from age sixteen, and short marriage to David Smith. They divorced in 1994 when she began a relationship with her boss’ son, Tom Findlay. Findlay broke off their relationship on October 17, 1994 stating that “There are some things about you which aren’t suited for me,… fact is, I just don’t want children.” Not wanting to lose Findlay, Smith drove her car with her sleeping children off a ramp into John D. Long Lake on October 25, 1994, quickly ran to a house and claimed that a black man had carjacked her car with her children inside. This attracted world-wide media attention. After a nine day manhunt, she confessed to her crime and was later sentenced to life in prison at the South Carolina’s Leath Correctional Institution on July 22, 1995. She will be eligible for parole on November 4, 2024, after serving a minimum of thirty years.

likeafieldmouse:

Ivan Navarro - Reality Show (2010)

artchipel:

Juliana Manara (b.1983, Brazil/UK) - MiniB

"MiniB was my imagination and now I am being able to make it visible through a playful, humorous photograph work. With fantasy it simulates some observations of human life. Each work brings ideas of feelings, facts or attitudes. It introduces multiple meanings with the universality of landscapes, sometimes surreal environments and always a good relationship between human and other animals or the needy relation between humans and material things. MiniB invites us to dialogue about our existence and also can claim to some absurdities of the human conditions. Sometimes it simulates a lost mind, sometimes the challenges or obligations or a very peaceful moment" Juliana Manara explores human experiences simulating the facts with fantasies. Her experimental photographic work is part of a growing up private and public international collection.

[more Juliana Manara | artist found at leslieseuffert]

farewell-kingdom:

Yves Marchand & Romain Meffre - The Ruins of Detroit

Detroit will always hold a special place in my heart.

(Source: 6in, via kubrickitty)

James Turrell at the Guggenheim.

Networking- Linked in

Please, feel free to add me.

cv September 2011

EDUCATION
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B.A. Art History (Magna Cum Laude) 2010 Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe, AZ
Areas of Interest: Photography, Modern, Contemporary Mexican, and New Media
B.A. Museum Studies (Magna Cum Laude) 2010 Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe, AZ
Areas of Interest: Public art, Art collection management, and Arts administration

A.A.S. Photographic Technology (Magna Cum Laude) 2006 Oakland Community College Royal Oak, MI

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
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Arizona State University Art Museum Volunteer Tempe, AZ July 2010- October 2010
• Researched photographs donated by the Andy Warhol Foundation of Visual Arts to find the connection of the subject and the artist and wrote the introduction panel used in the exhibition Andy Warhol: Who, What, Where, Mar 5- Aug 6, 2011
Phoenix Office of Arts and Culture Intern Phoenix, AZ July 2010- October 2010
• Worked with the public art department to showcase outstanding contributions to the city by designing an exhibition and writing accompanying text panels for later use
ASU Art Museum Intern Tempe, AZ January 2010- May 2010
• Conducted extensive research including internet databases, news paper archives, books, and museum records to write artist biographies and accompanying text panels for the exhibition From the Headlines, Mar 27- Jun 26, 2010
ASU Anthropology Museum Intern Tempe, AZ August 2009- December 2009
• Organized the Marigold Festival on the ASU campus November 2, 2009 and implemented an education program at Pastor Elementary in conjunction with the exhibition Que Vivan Los Muertos„ Oct 12, 2009- Jan 8, 2010
• Conducted several guided tours for the visiting schools while attending to the Museum
Tempe Historical Museum Restoration Member Tempe, AZ June 9- 26, 2009
• Under the supervision of a professional conservator, I assisted with cleaning the permanent collection that was damaged by dust during remolding.
ASU Step and Harry Wood Galleries Gallery Attendant Tempe, AZ Sept 2008- Dec 2008
• Supervised the Step gallery once a week and managed public inquires about art or artists
• worked with a team to coordinate and install the changing exhibitions
• Co-curated the exhibitions: Juried Undergraduate Exhibition, Dec 2008, and New Grads Exhibition, Oct 2008 at the ASU Harry Wood Gallery
Phoenix Art Museum Volunteer Phoenix, AZ January 2008- December 2009
• Greeter to the public during special exhibitions and events

RELATED EXPERIENCE
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Antonucci Café, Assistant to the Owner New York, NY October 2010-August 2011
• Acted as a liaison between the accountant and vendors
• Organized and coordinated private events, both in the restaurant and offsite
• Overseen daily opening tasks and provided necessary clerical work
• Managed the client records and the owners personal Contacts and schedule
Reference: Francesco Antonucci (Owner)

SKILLS
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• Well versed in MS Word, Works, Excel, Power Point, Adobe Photoshop CS2 and familiar with illustrator
• Years of experience creating professional slides, wall labels, mounting and matting art work and art installation

COMMUNITY OUTREACH
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• Participant: Xico, Inc. 30th annual El Día de los Muertos celebration: Chandler, AZ: Nov 7, 2009
• Cook and organizer: Food Not Bombs: Met weekly to distribute food to the homeless and organized a fundraiser, which featured local art work, live music and food: Phoenix, AZ: Sept 2006- Aug 2007
• Organizer: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial March Coat Drive for the homeless: Detroit, MI: Jan 2006

Woman Clothed With the Sun Escaping from the Dragon,
A contribution to Spanish Manuscript Tradition.
By Diana Ledesma

More to come!

Woman Clothed With the Sun Escaping from the Dragon,

A contribution to Spanish Manuscript Tradition.

By Diana Ledesma

More to come!

Margaret Kilgallen (1967-2001) AKA Meta AKA Matokie Slaughter

Our understanding is not an illusion: it is ambiguous. This ambiguity is present in all our views of works from other civilizations and even when we contemplate works from our own past. We are not Greeks, Chinese, or Arabs; yet neither can we say we fully comprehend Romanesque or Byzantine sculpture. We are condemned to translate, and each of these translations, whether it be of Gothic or Egyptian art, is a metaphor, a transmutation of the original.

Octavio Paz

From Essays on Mexican Art, 1993, pg 35

About me

I discovered art in High school. Although I had always enjoyed school, art and the classroom became a refuge at Kettering. My senior year consisted of mostly electives, which I embraced. I dabbled in ceramics, glass, figure drawing, and portfolio, but longed to take photography classes.

After graduation I enrolled at Oakland Community College and was inspired and encouraged by the photo program designed by Nick Valenti and Rob Kangas. After a year and a half, I thought about transfering to an art college in an historic district in St. Paul, MN, but backed out last minute… something just did not feel right. Instead, I decided to finish the Associate program at OCC and move to Phoenix, AZ with my mom and brother. I applied to Arizona State University’s Anthropology program, but transferred to the school of art before registration.

Valenti introduced me to Art History with the required History of Photography course. He compiled a thorough survey and included numerous work by lesser know photographers. One evening, he concluded our session with a slide show of postcards made at lynching sites accompineied by Billie Holiday’s Strange Fruit. There was something about Lady Day’s sad soulful lyrics contrasting the images of thick crowds of people, playfully posing in front of striking scenes of inhumanity… my world has never been the same.

I am interested in criticism, public art, curating, teaching and research. In September I am relocating to New York City to figure out my path. I am not opposed to going to graduate school, I just want to decide what to focus on. I feel excited for the possibilities. 

This blog is intended to showcase some of my writing, so you may learn my interests and observe my abilities. Feel free to ask anything. 

FROM THE HEADLINES: Selections From the Print Collection (March 27- June 26, 2010)

[As part of my academic internship spring 2010 at Arizona State University Art Museum, I created the artist’s biographies and text panels for the small exhibition.]

Enrique Chagoya’s art reflects his experiences in his homeland, Mexico, and his adopted home, the United States. He immigrated to the U.S. in the 1970s and feels that because he has lived in both countries, it has given him an interpretive advantage on the U.S.- Mexico relationship. The artist works in a variety of mediums including, paint, charcoal, pastel, etching and montage. His color palates are either gray scale or the combination of white, black and red which refer back to pre-Columbian books, anarchy, communism and Russian propaganda posters. He incorporates familiar pop icons to discuss complex issues such as colonialism, oppression and American foreign policy. The juxtapositions of themes and mediums create meanings of their own. The artists stated in 1994, “when two things get mixed, a third reality appears. This is part of my own history, new things are constantly being shaped in life, old borders are being crossed.”
Chagoya graduated from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México where he studied political economy and continued his education in America at the San Francisco Art Institute and University of California Berkley. He is currently a professor of Art at Stanford University.

Enrique Chagoya (b. 1953)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico; lives and works in San Francisco, CA)
Grande Hazañ! Con Muertos! from the Disasters of War Series, 1983-2003
Intaglio, 6 5/8 x 8 1/4”
Gift of Friends of Mexican Art 2003.048.001

Grande Hazañ! Con Muertos! from the Disasters of War Series, is part of a series that pays homage to Goya by reinventing some of the master’s well known prints. This work began in 1983 when Chagoya first encountered and was affected by a Goya print. The title translates to Great Deeds! Against the dead! and is a close copy of Goya’s print from his Disasters of War series, only Chagoya added a popular American icon, Mickey Mouse. Mickey is standing in the bottom left corner with his left arm raised as if presenting the gruesome scene. Chagoya believes that he does not document or witness social and political events in his work as Goya did, but instead only reflects that the same issues continue. From the artist, “The concept of this work is based on the question: How would Goya have portrayed events in the 20th century if he had witnessed it, if he had traveled in time? My etchings are my own version of the answer, without the pretension to compete with the old master.” He stated in a 2007 interview that Goya seems to be “someone who’s very frustrated with his times, maybe someone who’s very angry with his society” and wishes he had the chance to meet him.

Sue Coe is an English painter, draughtsman, etcher and author. She studied in London at the Chelsea School of Art and the Royal College of Art. Coe moved to New York after graduation to teach at the School of Visual Arts until 1978 and illustrate for publications such as The New York Times. She is an important social and political artist, creating visual commentaries on current events and persons in power; on the inhumane treatment of animals in factory farms, slaughterhouses, and laboratories; and on the victims of AIDS, Apartheid and war. She does this in a media that allows distribution to the widest audience: prints. Much like the historic artists Goya and Daumier, printmaking has become for her a method of artistic expression for social change. Although some critics have stated that her politics overshadow her art, Coe has always considered herself more of a journalist. She has written and illustrated a number of books including How to Commit Suicide in South Africa, 1983; X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X), 1986; Dead Meat, 1996; and Pit’s Letter, 2000. Coe’s paintings, drawings and prints are included in many public collections. An archive of her prints is at the ASU Art Museum, Jules Heller Print Study Room.

Sue Coe (b. 1951)
(Born in Tamworth, Staffordshire, England; lives and works in the United States)
9-11, 2002
Ink jet print, 15 5/8 x 21 1/4”
Gift of the artist 2003.005.001


Sue Coe (b. 1951)
(Born in Tamworth, Staffordshire, England; lives and works in the United States)
Anita Hill, 1991
Intaglio, copper plate etching, B/W, on Rives Paper, 15 1/4 x 9 3/4”
President’s fund for art purchases 1992.208.001

Anita Hill was made famous in the trial of Clarence Thomas, President George H. W. Bush’s nominee for the United States Supreme Court when Thurgood Marshall retired. Mashall was known for his tremendous strides with the civil rights movement and Thomas was far more conservative. Women’s groups and civil rights organizations openly voiced their opposition to his nomination. The Senate committee reached a stalemate vote and the final decision was taken to the Senate floor. Here, Anita Hill came forward as a former colleague of Thomas and stated that he had sexually harassed her when she refused to date him. The vigorous questioning of Anita Hill turned into a “witch hunt” and, as Coe implies in the print, ruining her credibility in the process. The hearings became a media frenzy and a bloody battle of her word against his. In the end the Senate voted in favor of his nomination 52-48.
Although Hill’s claims did not impact the Thomas nomination, it had an incredible effect in other areas. Sexual harassment cases more than doubled and awards to victims almost quadrupled. 1992 was known as the “Year of the Woman” because a record number of women ran for public office and won.

Robbie Conal grew up in New York City surrounded by art. He relocated to California where he studied at San Francisco State University and later Stanford University. After graduation he focused his efforts on topics of politics, power and the abuses of both, but realized that his message would be severely censored in established art institutions. What resulted was what he calls “guerilla-postering”. Conal made his paintings, critical and unflattering caricatures of public figures, into posters and hung them around the city with the aid of volunteers using glue and staples on virtually no budget. He calls the posters “adversary portraiture”. In 1983 Conal organized a group of students and colleagues at the University of Connecticut known as Art Attack. The collective made shirts, posters and postcards criticizing military foreign policy. The collective demanded social and political change. Today the artist lives in Los Angeles and continues to post his message on the streets.

Robbie Conal (b. 1944)
(Born in New York City, New York; lives and works in Los Angeles, CA)
Read My Apocalips, 2004
Off-set lithograph, 35 x 24”
Gift of Theodore Joseph Decker and Elizabeth Carrie Decker 2004.059.001

Read My Apocalips was created in conjunction with artists Shepard Fairey and Mear One for a series of “anti-war, anti-Bush” posters for a street art campaign called “Be the Revolution”. The images all featured a satirical depiction of George W. Bush with accompanying ironic text expressing the artist’s concerns about America’s role in the new world order. Thousands of the posters were printed for distribution by the art collective, Post Gen, who went on a tour of major cities in an effort to take back the freedom of expression in a Patriot-act era.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier was a painter, sculptor, illustrator and engraver. His career began when he joined his father, a glazier, frame-maker, picture restorer and poet, in Paris in 1816. There he studied drawing with Alexandre Lenoir and at the Académie Suisse and later became the assistant to the lithographer Béliard. His first plate was published in the satirical weekly La Silhouette in 1829.
The revolution of July 1830 gave the throne to Louis-Philippe as constitutional monarch and the French middle-class business community was in power. Published by Aubert and Charles Philipon, the first newspapers illustrated with lithographs on a daily basis were the anti-monarchist weekly paper La Caricature (from November 1830) and Le Charivari (from December 1832). In his work with these newspapers, Daumier quickly developed his style and progressive ideas. His attacks on the monarch led to the reintroduction of censorship laws and eventually lead to Daumier receiving a six month stay in prison from August 31, 1832 to February 14, 1833. In late 1835, the government imposed harsher censorship laws and Le Charivari was forced to restrict itself and Daumier’s work to images of social life. He returned to political satire in 1848 and started painting. In 1878, Daumier had his first successful painting exhibition, but by that time he was almost completely blind. He died a year later.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808-1879)
(Born in Marseille, France; died in Valmondois, France)
Embrassons nous
Lithograph, 9 5/8 x 8 1/8”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1980.036.001

Embrassons nous translates in English to “we embrace” and was published in the La Charivari October 24, 1867. Beginning in 1864, Daumier started a long series to warn the French people of war. He always represented Prussia with their typical spiked helmet. The woman in the print represents Peace.
The Franco-Prussian war officially began in July 1870 and ended the following year in February. Even though it was short in duration it had a large impact on Europe. France had more than half of its military forces deployed around the world, including Mexico, Indochina, Algeria and Rome, leaving it vulnerable. The end result of the war was the defeat of Napoléon III.

Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808-1879)
(Born in Marseille, France; died in Valmondois, France)
Je voulais la lui jeter et c’est moi qui me suis Sali
Lithograph, 2nd state, 9 1/2 x 8 1/4”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1980.040.001

On the right, the podium reads “Voltaire” the penname of the famous French philosopher and author who lived between 1694 and 1778. His ideas on free trade and religious intolerance and persecution influenced the French and American Revolutions. Voltaire was forced into exile several times for insulting important Frenchmen, but always returned back to his home land. At first, he was denied burial in church ground upon his death because of his beliefs, but was buried at an abbey in Champagne.

The title Je voulais la lui jeter et c’est moi qui me suis Sali roughly translates to “I wanted to throw it at him, and I’m the one who got soiled” was printed in Le Charivari in September 22, 1869. The metaphor refers to the Jesuit priests who tried to halt the memorial statue of Voltaire, but in turn made themselves look bad. The Jesuit he depicted in this print appears in about 19 other satires and is known as Basile the Jesuit, a symbol of perversity and hypocrisy. In a print from 1867 he shows the same Jesuit protesting the statue made in Voltaire’s honor by crying out, “I don’t want him to have a statue when I don’t have mine!” portraying him and other Jesuits as petty and arrogant.

Francisco José Goya y Lucientes was born in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 1746 to a small landowner. Though he had little formal education, at fourteen he painted frescoes in the Church of Fuendetodos and a year later began regular art studies. At age twenty, he left for Italy where he won a prize at Parma for Hannibal seeing Italy from the Alps, and produced a full-length portrait of Pope Benedict XIV, now in the Vatican. On Goya’s return to Spain (1775), he was introduced to the royal court where he was an active artist for about six decades. He worked most of his life as the official court painter to three generations of Spanish Royalty. In 1792 due to a prolonged fever and an extended period of illness in Cádiz in Andalusia, he became deaf. He returned to Madrid in 1793 and continued to paint. But Goya was also one of the most important printmakers of the 18th through early 19th centuries. By 1799 Goya had completed his first great print series, Los Caprichos. He worked on the Disaster of War series from 1810 to 1820, though it was not printed until after his death. In 1826 Goya retired, retaining his full salary due to his long service and advanced age, and lived out the rest of his days in Bordeaux, France.

Francisco José Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828)
(Born in Fuendetodos, Spain; died in Bordeaux, France)
Que Hai que hacer mas? (What more can one do?), 1810-1820 (edition 1868)
Intaglio, etching, drypoint, burin, and burnisher on paper, 6 1/8 x 8”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1983.019.001

Goya was 64 when he began the Disasters of War series in 1810, which included 83 prints. The scenes depicted in this series were from the Peninsular War of 1808-1814. France dominated the majority of continental Europe. In 1808 Napoleon deposed the existing Spanish monarch and placed his own brother Joseph on the throne. Spanish revolts and war followed. Britain sent troops to support the Spanish uprising, while the rebels utilized guerrilla tactics to attack the French and drive them out of Spain. It was the images of the atrocities from war, as seen in this print, that inspired this series. Goya refused to print the Disasters of War series partly because of the failure of his previous large project, Los Caprichos, and the strong message against war. The series was not printed until 1863 by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando where Goya was once a director. Today, the Disaster of War and the Los Caprichos series are his most well-known work. By depicting the violence and misery of the Peninsular War, he inspired future artists to depict and protest the indiscriminate “disasters of war” instead of glorifying the victories.

Jon Haddock received his BFA in drawing from Arizona State University in 1986 and went on to obtain his MFA in painting from the University of Iowa in 1991. Haddock works in a variety of mediums including digital, clay, drawing, painting and collage to explore iconography, history, violence, desire and attitudes of human sexuality.

Jon Haddock (b. 1960)
(Born in Sacramento, CA; lives and works in Tempe, AZ)
Lorraine Motel, 2000
Digital C. Print, 16 x 20”
Museum purchase with partial donation from Howard House Gallery, Seattle, WA 2000.049.001

Lorraine Motel was made in 2000 as part of the Screenshots collection. He created 20 prints total, all 600x800 pixels, recalling important historical events or well known fictional scenes and drawn using isometric perspective, commonly seen in video games. The perspective allows figures to retain their scale despite the distance from the viewer, unlike true perspective where they are smaller the further away they are. Lorraine motel, located in Memphis, Tennessee, was well known for being affordable and safe and had both white and black guests. Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. all stayed there during the late 1960s. Although Haddock was only seven at the time, he chose to document the shocking assignation that took place there on April 4, 1968, making the motel a symbol of the civil rights movement.

Most commonly known for his “Modern Moral Subjects,” William Hogarth was much more than a satirist, he was also a great painter, drawer, writer, and engraver. He was born in London, England, on November 10, 1697. Hogarth grew up poor; his father was arrested for debt and his family moved into debtor’s lodgings near his prison. He did not have the best schooling, but he did love to draw, filling his assignments with designs. At 16, Hogarth became an apprentice to a silversmith engraver. He began an eight-year apprenticeship, but left after six years. He opened his own engraving shop out of the family home in 1720 at the age of 23. There he did everything from book illustrations to his own satiric prints before he decided to start painting. Hogarth enrolled at artist James Thornhill’s school in Covent Garden and started to produce conversation pieces and portraits for commission for wealthy patrons. But he knew there was a larger market in the middle class for his prints. He engraved his first satiric series after his paintings in 1731 and the series was copied without his approval by other artists and publishers. Backed by the support of his fellow engravers, he worked to have a law passed to protect the copyrights of engravers in 1735. The Copyright Act became synonymous with Hogarth and is more commonly known as the Hogarth Act. He continued to design more engravings that satirized high and low society. He served as Sergeant Painter to the King George II and was involved with the Society of Artists. On October 25, 1764 at the age of 67 he died of a ruptured artery in his home in London.

William Hogarth (1697-1764)
(Born, lived and died in London, England)
Canvassing for Votes, Plate II, 1757
Inscribed: To His Excellency Sir Charles Hanbury Williams Embassador to the Court of Russia. This Plate is humbly Inscrib’d by his most Obedient Humble Servant Wm Hogarth. Published February 20th 1757 as the Act directs. G. Grignion (engraver) and Painted by W. Hogarth.
Engraving, 17 1/8 x 21 7/8”
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. M.F. Dorfman 1977.032.008b

Hogarth produced several print series, each a social/moral visual play that tells a story. Canvassing for Votes is part of a set of four prints loosely based on the Oxfordshire Election. The scene in Plate II depicts Britain’s historical parties, Whig and Tory, working to find votes. The Royal Oak Inn on the right was the headquarters of the Tory party and is decorated with satirical signs that show the opponent purchasing votes using coins from his wheelbarrow. This suggests that the Whigs use taxpayer’s money to fund election treats and bribes. The Tory candidate, standing under the sign, is buying goods from the peddlers and young girls hang from the balcony in admiration. A woman by the door, the landlady of the Inn, is counting her share while a solider spies on her from the shadows. The center of the scene shows a group of men and, in the middle, an innkeeper is accepting bribes from men of both parties at the same time. In the background Hograth shows the Whig headquarters being attacked by a mob of Tory supporters. The prints in this series were started after the General Election and the results were widely publicized. He was more concerned about showing the political and aristocratic methods of intimidation, buying votes and taking advantage of the people rather than the outcome of the election.

Winslow Homer was an illustrator, etcher and painter, most famous for his landscapes and watercolors. He showed an interest in art early on and was encouraged by both parents. He taught himself illustration and at 19 became the apprentice at a lithographic firm in Boston where he learned to be a draughtsman.
Homer moved to New York in 1859 and quickly became an illustrator at Harper’s Weekly and several other publications. He attended night school at the National Academy of Design, drawing classes in Brooklyn, and was taught oil painting by Frédéric Rondel. He became a war correspondent during the Civil War, traveling south with the Union and illustrating their daily life. His painting Prisoners from the Front (1866) achieved international success at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867.

Homer took up watercolor in 1873 and became a member of the American Society of Painters in Watercolor in 1877. Towards the end of his career he moved to a house on the coast of Maine and focused on the sea and wilderness as the subject of his work. In the 1880s he began to teach himself etching and made several prints of his paintings. By the time of his death in 1910, he had more art work in public collections than any other living artist and had received numerous awards and honors.

Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
(Born in Boston, MA; died in Prout’s Neck, ME)
The Army of the Potomac- A Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, 1862
Wood engraving, 9 1/8 x 3 1/4”
Purchased with funds provided by the American Art Heritage Fund 1975.041.001

This image of The Army of the Potomac- A Sharpshooter on Picket Duty is the most collected and hard to find of Homer’s civil war prints. It was printed in the November 15, 1862 issue of Harper’s Weekly. Although the image helped to make him famous, he found the position of the sharpshooter disturbing. Homer was an artist for the Union and stated in a letter to a friend that the job of a sharpshooter struck him as being as close to “murder” as anything else in connection to the army. He may have felt that way because of the distance the shooter (sniper) could keep from his victim. The sniper was armed with new customized rifles (such as the Whitworth, Berdan Sharps and Morgan rifles) with telescopes that allowed them to see their targets from a greater distance and modified barrels that expanded the range of the rifle to hit their distant marks.

Leopoldo Mendez was a Mexican painter, printmaker, illustrator and draughtsman. He studied at the Academia de San Carlos from 1917–1919 and at the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre de Chimalistac from 1920– 1922 in Mexico City, Mexico. During the 1920s he was associated with a collective of Mexican writers and artists called Estridentismo and worked as an illustrator for various magazines. An exhibition of his work was held in the United States in 1930 which lead to several exhibitions abroad. In 1939 he received a grant from the Guggenheim Foundation in New York. In the 1930s he founded the collective Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios and when it closed in 1937, began the Taller de Gráfica Popular collective to which he was the director until 1952. His social realist style prints reflect social struggle and the beliefs of the Mexican Communist Party. His prints were featured in numerous movies during the “golden age” of Mexican cinema and he produced murals and other large scale work in Mexico.

Leopoldo Mendez (1902-1969)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico, 1902; died in Mexico City, Mexico)
Juarez, 1938,
Woodengraving, 5 1/4 x 7 1/4”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1993.079.017

This image is in honor of Benito Juárez, the president of Mexico from 1858 to 1872. He spent much of his career defending the civil rights of native people and limiting the Church’s power. However, his political life was turbulent, as was the struggle for control of Mexico. He remains a favorite president of the Mexican people, much like our respect for President Abraham Lincoln who governed our country through turbulent times and civil unrest.

In 1938 the artist of this print, Leopoldo Mendez, received a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship and used the money to explore the United States, sketching the lives of the American industrial worker. He was surprised, however, by the discrimination he experience. For example, in New Orleans he was excited to view the American film Juárez about the Mexican President, but was unable to because it was shown in a white only theater.

Leopoldo Mendez (1902-1969)
(Born in Mexico City, Mexico, 1902; died in Mexico City, Mexico)
El Fascismo II (Facism II), 1936
Woodengraving, 5 3/8 x 6 5/8”
Purchased with funds provided by the ASU Art Museum Store 1993.079.019

Méndez founded LEAR (Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucinarios or the League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) in 1934 in which he and other artists used art to convey their views that openly oppose Fascism and Nazism and instead support socialism.

A progressive Popular Front government was elected by the people in 1936 and alarmed the conservatives of Spain. Before, the Catholic Church had a lot of pull within the country and was not concerned with the large population of poor
within the borders. They controlled secondary education, did not educate women or see a need for it, universal literacy was not a concern and divorce was illegal. Fed up with the circumstances, the people broke into the barracks and armed themselves to fight their way to Barcelona and Madrid. The conservatives sought help in the Fascist governments of Italy, Germany, and Portugal, making the civil dispute an international fight between fascism and democracy. This image is symbolic of this struggle with disarmed workers shot and held at gunpoint by the Nazis.

Thomas Nast was an illustrator whose family immigrated to America from Germany when he was six. He was taught by the history painter Theodore Kaufmann and studied at the National Academy of Design. He began to work as a political cartoonist for the publication Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Magazine at the age of 15, but it was in 1862 when he took a position at Harper’s Weekly that his style developed. His work largely dealt with the Civil War and favored the North; in fact, Abraham Lincoln called the artist “the Union’s best recruiting sergeant.” He worked as a war correspondent and visited battle grounds, sending back drawings of the scene.

After 1865, he based his caricatures on photographs and included character traits and personal weaknesses in the expressions of his subjects. Satirical captions finished the drawings. He earned the nickname “president maker” because six presidents he supported in Harper’s were elected. He soon became a popular, nationally-known name, and his political cartoons on current events became a timeline of American history. Nast is credited with creating: the political symbols of the elephant and donkey, shaping the image of Santa Claus and Uncle Sam, and aiding in the arrest of “Boss” William Tweed, the head of a corrupt group of Tammany Hall politicians who stole over $200 million dollars from the city of New York.

After Nast left Harper’s, he published a book of drawings in 1890 and was appointed American Consul to Guayaquil, Ecuador, by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. He died shortly after of yellow fever.

Thomas Nast (1840-1902)
(Born in Landau, Bavaria, 1840; died in Guayaquil, Ecuador)
Too Thin, 1871
Woodengraving, 11x 9 1/4”
Gift of Dr. Betsy Fahlman 1994.155.002

This image (Too Thin) appeared on the cover of Harper’s Weekly on September 30, 1871. Nast depicts “Boss Tweed” otherwise known as William Meager Tweed, a corrupt New York City Tammany Hall politician, and his associates, the “Tweed Ring.” Tweed came into power in 1863 and stayed there by buying his supporters with jobs or government contracts. They, in turn, would raise their contract prices higher than actual costs so that Tweed and friends could pocket the difference. Nast’s sarcastic print shows the “Tweed Ring” to be “Too Thin” when in fact they were fat with padded contracts, bribes and public funds.

Tweed’s undoing started when vouchers and papers were stolen from the controller’s office of City Treasury in late 1871. The janitor of the Court House, Edwin Haggerty, along with his assistant and his wife were arrested in connection with the theft. Nast produced many cartoons attacking Tweed, but it
was members of his ring that eventually turned on him and provided evidence that led to his and his associates arrests. The resulting trial brought to light their many criminal activities. He resigned from office in 1871 and was convicted in 1873 and eventually died in prison in 1878.

Thomas Nast (1840-1902)
(Born in Landau, Bavaria, 1840; died in Guayaquil, Ecuador)
They Both Lie Together in the Washington Arena, 1876
Woodengraving, 9 x 13 1/2”
Gift of Dr. Betsy Fahlman 1994.055.005

The Society of Tammany (a patriotic society started in 1789) and the Democratic Party blended into a political machine, Tammany Hall, which controlled New York politics from about 1855 to the 1930s. Nast originally created the tiger to represent the “Tweed Ring” and Tammany Hall: it was called the Tammany Tiger. But it also represented the Democratic Party which was controlled by Tammany Hall. Nast used the lamb, eagle and finally the elephant to represent the Republican party.

The tiger’s quote “I have reformed, and am tame now” implies the impact the arrest and imprisonment of Tweed and his associates had on the Tammany Hall power system. But as the image depicts, the tiger is still very aggressive compared to the timid Republican lamb. The conflict between the two is based on two other events in 1876. That was the year of the first Centennial Celebration in Philadelphia to honor the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, but as shown in his cartoon, the political parties were not exactly friendly for two reasons. First, the Democratic Party supported a bill that designated a million and a half dollars for the Centennial Fund, but was not supported by all. Second, in January the house met to discuss the amnesty bill, an official pardon for offences against the government by Jefferson Davies, the chosen President of the Confederacy, and others involved. The amnesty bill fell short of the two-thirds vote necessary and the discussion of peace and forgiveness turned hostile.

Mike Ritter was born to a political family and once considered himself a conservative, but now finds the label outdated. Through his cartoons he satirizes anyone or topic he disagrees with, regardless of political affiliation. He moved to Arizona in the 1980s to attend Arizona State University and has since made it his home. His biggest influences growing up were Dr. Suess and Al Hirschfeld. Ritter’s work is featured in the Arizona Tribune and he is the President of the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists.

Mike Ritter
(Born in Ritzville, Washington; lives and works in Phoenix, AZ)
The Clintons, 2004
Ink on paper, 9 x 12”
Gift of Mike Ritter 2004.136.001

The Democratic National Convention was held at the Fleet Center (now the TD Banknorth Garden) in Boston, Massachusetts on July 26 to July 29, 2004. John Kerry and John Edwards were nominated as the official candidates of the Democratic Party for President and Vice President of the United States for the upcoming Presidential Elections. The keynote speaker for the evening was then United States senator of Illinois, Barak Obama. The convention also included a speech by former President Bill Clinton, introduced by his wife Hillary Clinton (now the current United States Secretary of State) to a roaring crowd and standing ovation, perhaps overshadowing – as Ritter illustrates – the men of the hour, Kerry and Edwards.

Mike Ritter
(Born in Ritzville, Washington; lives and works in Phoenix, AZ)
The Missing Link, 2004
Ink on paper, 9 x 12”
Gift of Mike Ritter 2004.136.004

In part because of the Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) attack on New York on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush ordered troops to invade Iraq. On Wednesday, June 23, 2004, two and half years after the 9/11 attack, Bush was told by the 9/11 Commission that there was no evidence linking Iraq to the terrorist group that claimed responsibility for the attack. Media outlets ran the story immediately. White House staffers called on CIA officials for their assessment of Saddam Hussein’s relationship with Al-Qaeda and, according to a senior White House official, CIA officials told Bush aides they still believed there were links. President Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice all had supported the CIA theory nationally. However, a schism occurred in Congress after the Commission’s report. John Kerry and others attacked Bush for leading the United States to war on false pretenses. Bush stated, “you can’t distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam in the war on terror,” in a 2002 letter to Congress that cited Iraqi involvement in 9/11 as one of the reasons for war. But Bush later denied that the administration ever said a link existed. In this cartoon, Ritter is illustrating this “missing link.”

For Paul Szep, being a cartoonist was a second choice. Born in Canada, his dream was to play for the National Hockey League, but his time with a semi-professional team did not work out. Now he is an award winning cartoonist. His achievements include two Pulitzer Prizes, the International Thomas Nast Award, and three Honorary Doctorates.

He started at his high school newspaper creating sports cartoons, which quickly evolved into political satire. He specialized in Illustration at the Ontario College of Art and shortly after graduation, Szep landed a job at the Boston Globe. Boston “radicalized” him, for he grew up in a conservative, apolitical town. He believes that humor is integral to political commentary and finding what to comment on is the hardest part of the job. The cartoonist was sued for libel for his satires of the Governor of Massachusetts, Edward King, in which he replied: “My goodness, a political cartoonist holding up a politician for ridicule. That’s not libel, that’s a job description.” He currently works for the Huffington Post and publishes a daily cartoon.

Paul Szep (b. 1941)
(Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; lives and works in the United States)
National Security Blanket
Lithograph, 14 7/8 x 18”
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hellwitz 1988.169.001

This image satirizes former President Nixon taking comfort behind the “National Security Blanket” during his Watergate days. In 1968, Richard Nixon was elected the 37 th president of the United States. He was reelected in 1972 by a landslide, ironically just after news broke about the summer burglary of the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Hotel. Five Whitehouse staff members were seen the night of June 17, 1972 by security guard Frank Wills, who alerted authorities. Nixon was in Florida at the time and denied knowing anything about the break in when the news appeared in TV and newspapers.

An informant working for the FBI, who became known as Deep Throat, helped reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post uncover the interworking of the scandal which led to investigations by the appointed Senate Watergate Committee.

Nixon continually denied his involvement in the scandal. Then White House aide Alexander Butterfield reported that Nixon had secretly recorded his phone calls and conversations in the Oval Office on tape. Subpoenas were issued requesting the tapes, but Nixon refused, citing “executive privilege,” the doctrine that the president, as chief executive, is entitled to candid and confidential advice from aides and that it was a matter of national security. Nixon’s lawyers revealed
parts of the tapes had been erased. Eventually in April 1974, transcripts of some tapes were released, the content of which further diminished Nixon’s credibility and his support. In July 1974 the Supreme Court ordered Nixon to give-up the tapes and issued one article of impeachment. Nixon finally released the tapes, which included one from June 23, 1972 that revealed the president’s connection to the break-ins and cover-up. The house began proceedings for impeachment, but Nixon resigned from office on national television August 8, 1974. President Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon for any criminal activities. Nixon died April 22, 1994 at the age of 81.

Francesc Torres is a printmaker and mixed-media artist working with video, photography and sculpture. He emigrated from Spain in the 1970s and became a United States citizen in 1989. The majority of his work revolves around the memory of war, power, forgotten human casualties and historical events.

Torres has been recognized by several institutions and received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, The New York Foundation for the Arts, the Massachusetts Council for the Art and Humanities, the Spanish Ministry of Culture, the D.A.A.D. Berlin artists program and a Fulbright fellowship. His work has been exhibited in several prestigious museums and institutions including the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gardens, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid; Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, Mexico; and The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

At the time of the Persian Gulf Crisis, Torres was living in the United States and noticed a collective amnesia. Torres paraphrased Jean Baudrillard, the French sociologist, philosopher and political commentator, that the Gulf War was not going to happen while they were preparing, was not taking place while it was occurring, and had not taken place after it was over.

Francesc Torres (b. 1948)
(Born in Barcelona, Spain; lives and works out of Barcelona and New York)
Untitled (Forget me Not), 1991
Phototransfer, intaglio, 11 3/4 x 8 3/4”
Gift of the artist 1997.036.001

Torres created the Forget Everything series I-VI in 1991 when the Gulf War was ending. The war that did not happen took place between Iraq and Kuwait. At one point Kuwait was an ally and funding source for Iraq, but when Iraq was unable to repay its debt the relationship changed. Iraq invaded in August, 1990, and the United States was asked for help by the Saudi King Fahd. President George H. W. Bush was sure that the invasion “will not stand”; however, by October he made the secret decision to double the troops in Saudi Arabia. In November the United Nations pushes for Iraqi withdrawal and set a deadline for January, which was not met. Hundreds of civilians were killed in the attacks by the time that Bush declared a cease-fire February 28, 1991. In June the United States celebrated the victory of expelling Iraq from the state of Kuwait, but as Torres points out, “officially, there is no victorious fighter without dead enemies.”

Betty Wells, also known as “quick draw Wells,” does not remember a time when she wasn’t drawing or sketching. Growing up through the depression was difficult and she was forced to use brown bags as drawing paper. However, her self-taught skills, fostered by her aunt, paid off when she received a four year Merit Scholarship to the Maryland Institute College of Art. She won the Henry Walters post-graduate award and continued her studies for another year, but stopped in 1949 to start a family.

Wells received her first chance as a courtroom artist from Neal Friedman, a reporter from WBAL, Baltimore’s NBC affiliate station. Artists were used to illustrate court events when photography and film/video cameras were not permitted in the courtroom. Friedman asked Wells if she would like to sketch the H. Rap Brown Tribunal, the trial of a Black Panthers member. Wells continued working with NBC for many years, covering Watergate, the John Hinkley trial and many others.

Betty Wells (b. 1926)
(Born in Baltimore, Maryland; lives and works in Virginia)
John Hinkley, 1982
Color markers, pen, and ink on paper, 14 x 16 1/2”
Gift of Betty Wells 2004.132.003

John F. Hinckley, Jr. fired a Rohm RG-14 revolver six times in an attempt to assassinate President Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1982. In his defense, he blamed the 1976 Robert De Niro movie Taxi Driver in which the main character, Travis Bickle, assassinates a political figure in an attempt to gain the admiration of woman. The movie featured the young Jodie Foster, whom Hinckley was obsessed with after repeatedly watching the movie, reading the original book, and listening to the soundtrack. Dr. William Carpenter, Jr. a defense expert claimed that Hinckley unconsciously “absorbed the identity of Travis Bickle.” The verdict “not guilty” for reasons of insanity caused a stir. Many Americans blamed the jury as being “anti-Reagan,” but others accused the legal system, claiming that it was too easy for people to claim insanity. Public pressure surrounding the case led to many states enacting major reforms to the laws governing the use of the insanity defense.

Betty Wells (b. 1926)
(Born in Baltimore, Maryland; lives and works in Virginia)
Susan Smith, 1995
Color markers, pen, and ink on paper, 14 x 16 1/2”
Gift of Betty Wells 2004.132.004

Shown here crying during testimony, Susan Vaughan Smith was convicted on July 22, 1995, and sentenced to life in prison for murdering her two sons, Michael Daniel Smith, 3, and 14-month-old Alexander Tyler Smith. She had a difficult life from early youth when her parents divorced, her father comitted suicide, her stepfather molested her from age sixteen, and short marriage to David Smith. They divorced in 1994 when she began a relationship with her boss’ son, Tom Findlay. Findlay broke off their relationship on October 17, 1994 stating that “There are some things about you which aren’t suited for me,… fact is, I just don’t want children.” Not wanting to lose Findlay, Smith drove her car with her sleeping children off a ramp into John D. Long Lake on October 25, 1994, quickly ran to a house and claimed that a black man had carjacked her car with her children inside. This attracted world-wide media attention. After a nine day manhunt, she confessed to her crime and was later sentenced to life in prison at the South Carolina’s Leath Correctional Institution on July 22, 1995. She will be eligible for parole on November 4, 2024, after serving a minimum of thirty years.

cv September 2011
"Our understanding is not an illusion: it is ambiguous. This ambiguity is present in all our views of works from other civilizations and even when we contemplate works from our own past. We are not Greeks, Chinese, or Arabs; yet neither can we say we fully comprehend Romanesque or Byzantine sculpture. We are condemned to translate, and each of these translations, whether it be of Gothic or Egyptian art, is a metaphor, a transmutation of the original."
About me
FROM THE HEADLINES: Selections From the Print Collection (March 27- June 26, 2010)

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